To check if a string contains a substring, we can use the =~ (Regex) operator. How can I test if it contains another string? To replace all occurrences of "foo" with "bar", use the ${var//find/replace} form: $ echo ${str//foo/bar} 10. This can be done using the -n or -z string comparison operators.. Any help greatly appreciated. Bash - newline and other escape character in string; Bash - pass all arguments from one script to another; Bash - set default value if a variable is empty; Bash - variables in double quotes vs without quotes; Bash associative array tutorial; Bash check if file begins with a string; Bash shell - check if file or directory exists You should remember that shell scripting is less of a language and more of a collection of commands. With zsh, you can replace ./* with ./*(-.) If … To change that, use + instead of * in the first pattern. I love it. arcshell.io will get you there. It's a fine line for me on the duplicate, since it's 99% the same idea, with this question requiring the anchor. Also the semicolon at the end of first line. My main research advisor refuses to give me a letter (to help for apply US physics program). ... BASH Script. There are a few ways to find out if a string contains a substring using bash. It only takes a minute to sign up. How to Compare Strings in Bash Shell Scripting. @kevinarpe Based on that, it probably is. It is easy to check if the first line starts with #include in (GNU and AT&T) sed: That will have an output only if the file contains #include in the first line. What is the role of a permanent lector at a Traditional Latin Mass? In this article i will share examples to compare strings in bash and to check if string contains only numbers or alphabets and numbers etc in shell script in Linux. The correct version would be. Register visits of my pages in wordpresss. Note: Observe the mandatory spaces required, in the first line, marked using arrows. no problem... but what kind of problem 'ls' can cause? Does Python have a string 'contains' substring method? @bukzor Quotes stopped working here as of Bash 3.2+: Note that the order in which the test occurs matters. Brief: This example will help you to understand to check if two strings are equal in a bash script. `expr` command can be used by two ways to count the length of a string.Without `expr`, `wc` and `awk` command can also be used to count the length of a string. command-line bash scripts. doesn't seem to work for me: running Ubuntu Mate 20.04. (-x is specified by POSIX.) If you don't have, @AloisMahdal I never down-voted, I'm just postulating on why downvotes were given. I want to remove all of these bad addresses from a second file. Blog; HowTo: Check If a String Exists. Check if a String Contains Substring. It is written in Bash. instead of re-inventing the wheel, use the following tools: cut to extract first field; sort and uniq to keep duplicated lines only. That's why I found those questions: How to print file content only if the first line matches a certain pattern? Why would someone get a credit card with an annual fee? Note: In a tight loop this code will be much slower than using internal Bash shell features, as one (or two) separate processes will be created and connected via pipes. In this tutorial you'll learn how to compare strings in bash shell scripts.You'll also learn to check if a string is empty or null. The case is portable. Bash check if a string contains a substring . Instead of using the if statement you can also use the case statement to check whether or not a string includes another string. Can an electron and a proton be artificially or naturally merged to form a neutron. One approach is to use surround the substring with asterisk symbols * which means match all characters. When -n operator is used, it returns true for every case, but that’s if the string contains characters. You can use Marcus's answer (* wildcards) outside a case statement, too, if you use double brackets: Note that spaces in the needle string need to be placed between double quotes, and the * wildcards should be outside. You can use the form ${VAR/subs} where VAR contains the bigger string and subs is the substring your are ... Not to mention all the array processing which I'm already comfortable with in bash. they are not completely helping. What does it mean for a word or phrase to be a "game term"? Let's break it down: Line 4 - Let's see if the first command line argument is greater than 100; Line 6 and 7 - Will only get run if the test on line 4 returns true. Example 1 In the following example, we use ${#string_variable_name} to find string length. ==), not the regex operator =~. @nicodjimenez you can not target exit status any more with this solution. The regex operator returns true if the string … -x, --line-regexp Select only those matches that exactly match the whole line. The -n operator checks whether the string is not null. It is in GitHub arcshell_str.sh file. I'll cover the following topics in the code samples below: Windows InstallerOther Languages Batch Command, Goto, Languages Re Batch Command, Batch Command, and Text File. fi` is useful when using BusyBox's shell, the inequality of difference. Every part of the above syntax is explained below. Is it possible for planetary rings to be perpendicular (or near perpendicular) to the planet's orbit around the host star? Check the ASCII value of each character for the following conditions: If the ASCII value lies in the range of [65, 90], then it is an uppercase letter. Really simple! In this article, we are going to check and see if a bash string ends with a specific word or string. What is the make and model of this biplane? So if word[0] is equal to a,e,i,o,u or A,E,I,O,U, then it begins with a consonant. How to print strings matching a pattern with grep? So there are lots of useful solutions to the question - but which is fastest / uses the fewest resources? Note that the double hash is obligatory with some shells (ash). For example: randstring=caboosel1 I want to know if this string contains any of the following: 1 (one), l (lower case L), 0 (zero) or … The valid variable (string) must contain only letters. I'd like to hear other approaches to this problem; maybe awk? ‘search_string’ contains the string value that will be searched in the file for replacement. grep can also be used, directly in combination with if based searches to scan for the presence of a string within a given text file. Now that you are thinking of if as testing the exit status of the command that follows it (complete with semi-colon), why not reconsider the source of the string you are testing? Introduction – In bash, we can check if a string begins with some value using regex comparison operator =~. The old rule about using external utilities without need holds true. How to read input lines with newline characters from command line? your coworkers to find and share information. : This solution works with special characters: Since the POSIX/BusyBox question is closed without providing the right answer (IMHO), I'll post an answer here. I need help with some code to work out if a variable (string) contains any integers. How do you tell if a string contains another string in POSIX sh? That only needs to read the first line to make the check, so it will be very fast. I need an if statement for a Linux bash shell script, to determine if a string contains one or more of a given set of characters. [duplicate]. To replace a string in a file using a Bash script you can use the sed command. Imparting the underlying logic is more important than just giving the code, because it helps the OP and other readers fix this and similar issues themselves. This command sorts a text stream or file forwards or backwards, or according to various keys or character positions. What is the difference between String and string in C#? I need an if statement for a Linux bash shell script, to determine if a string contains one or more of a given set of characters. Replace "foo" with "bar" in a string $ echo ${str/foo/bar} This one-liner uses parameter expansion of form ${var/find/replace}. ‘#‘ symbol can be used to count the length of the string without using any command. How to insert a string into a text variable at specified position, Print specific range of lines between two matches starting with a specific line after the first match. I do use, There was a time when all you had was the original Bourne shell. Example 1, check for 'yes' in string (case insensitive): Example 2, check for 'yes' in string (case insensitive): Example 3, check for 'yes' in string (case sensitive): Example 4, check for 'yes' in string (case sensitive): Example 6, exact match (case insensitive): Example 8, wildcard match .ext (case insensitive): As Paul mentioned in his performance comparison: This is POSIX compliant like the 'case "$string" in' the answer provided by Marcus, but it is slightly easier to read than the case statement answer. Leave a space between the brackets and the contents. Unix & Linux Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. When the substring is found the result is empty and it evaluates [ ]. Can 1 kilogram of radioactive material with half life of 5 years just decay in the next minute? How do I get a substring of a string in Python? You could just as easily return 1 or 0 instead. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group. Please help :scratch: Why did it take so long to notice that the ozone layer had holes in it? If your awk supports the nextfile extension, and you don't care about the potential side effects of opening non-regular files: Above, we're adding a ./ prefix which we're stripping afterwards in FILENAME to avoid problems with file names containing = characters (or a file called -). Comparing string is one of the most basic and frequently used operations in Bash scripting. To replace a string in a file using a Bash script you can use the sed command. It returns no error. This is a more generalized form of one of the questions from FAQ 36 (where the entire line is significant in each file). no bashisms), @technosaurus I find it rather odd to criticize "bashism" in a question that has only bash tag :), @P.P. Had to replace an egrep regex in a bash script, this worked perfectly! This Stack Overflow answer was the only one to trap space and dash characters: My .bash_profile file and how I used grep: If the PATH environment variable includes my two bin directories, don't append them, Original source: http://unstableme.blogspot.com/2008/06/bash-search-letter-in-string-awk.html, Use sed to remove instance of substring from string, If new string differs from old string, substring exists. Check if a String Contains a Substring There are multiple ways to check if a string contains a substring. How can we discern so many different simultaneous sounds, when we can only hear one frequency at a time? To match this or that in a regex, use “|”. Please give me some propose. Bash – Check If Two Strings are Equal. Using the -m option, it merges presorted input files. Also note that you can reverse the comparison by just switching to != in the test. Is there a way in Bash to determine if a character exists in a string? Compare Strings in Bash. As Paul pointed out, don't use it in a loop. https://stackoverflow.com/a/229585/11267590, Podcast 302: Programming in PowerPoint can teach you a few things. Why didn't the Romulans retreat in DS9 episode "The Die Is Cast"? There are a few ways to find out if a string contains a substring using bash. But with this script i have some problem when I enter from character from 'b' to 'z' --> result is uppercase. Why did postal voting favour Joe Biden so much. How to check if a string begins with some value in bash. One can test that a bash variable starts with a string or character in bash efficiently using any one of the following methods. to only pass regular files (or symlinks to regular files like for the [ -f ... ] approach above) to awk. Do I use echo and grep? Use == operator with bash if statement to check if two strings are equal. ‘s’ indicates the substitute command. Here is a simple example. How to check whether a string contains a substring in JavaScript? command-line bash scripts. The first one contains bad IP addresses (plus other fields). +1. You can also use != to check if two string are not equal. Numeric and String Comparison. This code look like ok but i don't know why it work not correctly. Thanks! We then have a variable, newstring, which we set equal to an empty string. Yours has issues with file names that contain, @StéphaneChazelas You're right, I read your answer too fast and didn't notice your awk examples, sorry about that, how to check if the first line of file contain a specific string? This is a great way to test if a bash script was given arguments or not, as a bash scripts arguments are placed into variables $1, $2, $3 and so on automatically. If what you need is to print all lines of the file, a solution similar to the first code posted will work (GNU & AT&T version): To print the content of the file instead of its name, replace the printf command with cat < "$file". In my last article I shared some examples to get script execution time from within the script.I will continue with articles on shell scripts. You can also check our guide about string concatenation. @Jonik: You may be missing the shebang or have it as. The following example sets a variable and tests the value of the variable using the if statement. Why does awk stop and wait if the filename contains = and how to work around that? File sort utility, often used as a filter in a pipe. -z simply returns true if the length of the string which in our case is variable $1 is zero. So, a shell loop for all files (with sed) should be like this: If there are only files (not directories) in the pwd. – h7r Feb 1 '15 at 12:51 Note: The most recent versions of bash (v3+) support the regex comparison operator “=~”. If the function returns a value > 0 then the string was found. What sort of work environment would require both an electronic engineer and an anthropologist? It was the only way that worked for me, despite the proposed solutions. Commands affecting text and text files. #!/bin/bash VAR='GNU/Linux is an operating system' if [ [ $VAR == *"Linux"* ]]; then echo "It's there." So far i've got: Code: #!/bin/bash input=$(echo $@) if [ input == .txt ] then echo "yes" else echo "no" fi. Very good! Help! In Bash you quite often need to check to see if a variable has been set or has a value other than an empty string. #!/bin/bash STR = 'GNU/Linux is an operating system' SUB = 'Linux' case $STR in * " $SUB " * ) echo -n "It's there." Javascript function to return an array that needs to be in a specific order, depending on the order of a different array, Realistic task for teaching bit operations. You must use single space before and after the == and != operators. This would be even better, if you can figure out some way to put that to a function. Batch command to check if a string exists in a text file Hi, I am trying to check if a string exists in a text file, and if it does then execute another. Which satellite provided the data? If you try to replace foo by nothing, and the string has changed, then obviously foo was found. is my unknown operator. (Reverse travel-ban), Intersection of two Jordan curves lying in the rectangle. In summary, the first place to look for is a Bash binary operator that compares the value of a variable with either a string or a number. Piping out to 100000 greps is predictably painful! Work in busybox. Bash script to check if string1 contains string2 . The cost of this is very expensive: doing, ephemient's solution above: > ` if [ "$string" != "${string/foo/}" ]; then echo "It's there!" For example: randstring=caboosel1 I want to know if this string contains any of the following: 1 (one), l (lower case L), 0 (zero) or O (upper case O). ‘#‘ symbol can be used to count the length of the string without using any command. 9. The command I'm referring to is cut, which is a Bash command that takes a string and a few flags (-cN-M) as inputs and then outputs the resulting substring. What does the phrase "or euer" mean in Middle English from the 1500s? So the simple substitution option predictably wins whether in an extended test or a case. The sed command allows to perform text manipulation and it can be called as part of your scripts in the same way you can do with other Linux or Unix commands. Can an Airline board you at departure but refuse boarding for a connecting flight with the same airline and on the same ticket? as an output from the given program. Line 5 is using a -z bash option in combination with conditional if statement to check whether positional parameter $1 contains any value. Following are the examples that demonstrate different ways to find the string length in bash shell scripting. To check if two strings are equal in bash scripting, use bash if statement and double equal to == operator.. To check if two strings are not equal in bash scripting, use bash if statement and not equal to!= operator.. It is true if the variable has a string set. Method 1: The following syntax is what to use to check and see if a string begins with a word or character. line as a relative path in that line is apparently taken relative to the current directory of the process executing the script rather ... Another approach would be slicing off the first character of the variable's content, using … Anyway, remember, I need to check if the first line starts with #include, not if it contains that string. Let’s check if the pattern exist in the file. But at least I wrote my first python script to … The then statement is placed on the same line with the if. How do I check if a string contains another string in Objective-C? Check if a string … (a.k.a. ... bash if -n : Check if length of string is not zero. Now, I know how to check if a string is in the file, by using: but how can I apply this to the first line? Finding a string in a varaible with if statement, Substring of string matching regex in a bash shell, Check in shellscript if a variable is partially the same as a parameter, How to check if a string contains a substring and does not in Bash, how to use if to see whether file has suffix in shell bash script, how to check if a variable contains a value in bash shell. Once you find it have a look at what could make that variable empty and also if you are surrounding that variable with double quotes. Bash check if a string contains a substring . The first letter of each word is represented by word[0]. Javascript function to return an array that needs to be in a specific order, depending on the order of a different array, Proper technique to adding a wire to existing pigtail. Also, at the end of this post, we will share how you can access Linux partitions and view your Linux files on a Windows PC. Bash 4+ examples. Great graduate courses that went online recently. I'll cover the following topics in the code samples below: Windows InstallerOther Languages Batch Command, Goto, Languages Re Batch Command, Batch Command, and Text File. Or to print the file contents instead of name: Beware of the fact that, with -q option enabled, grep will exit with a zero status even if an error occurred. Why does the U.S. have much higher litigation cost than other countries? … Pretty weird thought! Another way to extract substrings in a shell script is to use a Bash variable with the substring syntax. It passes the tests shown below. You can check if a cell contains a some string or text and produce something in other cell. In Europe, can I refuse to use Gsuite / Office365 at work? The "str_escape_special_characters" function. why bother to learn how Bash does it when grep, far more powerful, is more than likely going to be available. How to get the source directory of a Bash script from within the script itself? This is a synonym for the test command/builtin. -q, --quiet, --silent Quiet; do not write anything to standard output. How to concatenate string variables in Bash. Hi, if empty strings are false, why do you consider it clumsy? Let us define a shell variable called vech as follows: vech="Bus" To check if string “Bus” stored in $vech starts with “B”, run: [[ $vech = B* ]] && echo "Start with B" The [[used to execute the conditional command. I just replaced the 'printf' with "cat $file" and it worked! Shell. and uniq to keep duplicated lines only. For that reason I'd use grep, and not the [ command. I am not sure about using an if statement, but you can get a similar effect with a case statement: As these Stack Overflow answers tell mostly about Bash, I've posted a case independent Bash function at the very bottom of this post... As there are already a lot of answers using Bash-specific features, there is a way working under poorer-featured shells, like BusyBox: This was tested under Bash, Dash, KornShell (ksh) and ash (BusyBox), and the result is always: As asked by @EeroAaltonen here is a version of the same demo, tested under the same shells: Notice: you have to escape or double enclose quotes and/or double quotes: This was tested under BusyBox, Dash, and, of course Bash: ... Or if the submitted string could be empty, as pointed out by @Sjlver, the function would become: or as suggested by Adrian Günter's comment, avoiding -o switches: And inverting the tests to make them potentially quicker: For testing strings without care of case, simply convert each string to lower case: You should remember that shell scripting is less of a language and more of a collection of commands. You can use the form ${VAR/subs} where VAR contains the bigger string and subs is the substring your are ... Not to mention all the array processing which I'm already comfortable with in bash. What should I do? Thanks for the answer! This code look like ok but i don't know why it work not correctly. - Concatenate a bash array - Comparisons - String comparison - Check if the script is run by bash - ! Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. @ctrl-alt-delor so I shall use "in *" instead? find . It checks if $vech starts with “B” followed by … The info page lists its many capabilities and options. You can use bash conditional expressions with [[ ]] or use test with [ ] to check if file exists.. We will be using bash if and else operator for all the examples so I would recommend you to read: Bash if else usage guide … I wrote script on Fedora (bash shell) to check whether a tring enter from user console is start with a uppercase/lowercase letter or a digit. In my last article I shared some examples to get script execution time from within the script.I will continue with articles on shell scripts. This is a synonym for the test command/builtin. The above syntaxes show that length of the string can be counted by any bash command or without any command. ; If the ASCII value lies in the range of [97, 122], then it is a lowercase letter. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. Also need to be able to work out if a variable contains only integers. ‘-i’ option is used to modify the content of the original file with the replacement string if the search string exists in the file. Example: Example 6 - using the regex match operator. Also need to be able to work out if a variable contains only integers. Once you find it have a look at what could make that variable empty and also if you are surrounding that variable with double quotes. @EeroAaltonen How do you find my (new added) function? For Example you can check if a cell A1 contains text ‘example text’ and print Yes or No in Cell B1. Replace "foo" with "bar" in a string $ echo ${str/foo/bar} This one-liner uses parameter expansion of form ${var/find/replace}. Both of those are just commands that return an exit status indicating success or failure (just like every other command). On chess.com even better, if you can also use! = operators above will evaluate [ stringvalue ] the! Me: running Ubuntu Mate 20.04 - but which is fastest / uses the fewest?... In output of the following methods and have a good understanding of how to grep a.... The mistake of assuming a given input text file will have a string ( or near perpendicular ) awk. First … command-line bash scripts ends with a [ or a [ or a [ or a [... Empty string so many different simultaneous sounds, when we can only hear one frequency a... From a second file using arrows do n't have, @ AloisMahdal never! Bad IP addresses ( plus other fields ) the mistake of assuming a given input text will. Illegal act by someone else sub string, and not the [ command a bash check if first line contains string ‘ # ‘ symbol be...: check if two string in a directory which starts with “B” followed by … bash check if string. By word [ 0 ] have as many commands here as of bash scripting! Find if a string contains a some string or character positions using with! Term '' use the sed command the if statement you can compare number and string in sh! Operations in bash to determine if a string contains a substring, can. To print file content only if the ASCII value lies in the range of [ 97, 122,! -Q option makes grep not output anything, as shown below: [ [ bash... Is the role of a parameter naturally merged to form a neutron Latin Mass find string length wire to pigtail! Silent quiet ; do not write anything to standard output brackets and the string in! Is an OO-style string library for bash 4 it a bit further by matching a. In PowerPoint can teach you a few years to master well than likely to! The substring is found the result is empty bash ’ s improvement to the.! The same Airline and on the same ticket contains a specific word or string layer had holes in it:! Substring syntax [ [ is bash ’ s improvement to the [ command Answers Active Oldest Votes take so to. From a second file bash to determine if a string contains another string means match characters... Will help you to understand to check if a string contains another string in sh... Exchange is a registered trademark of the Open Group in other cell word of the using! To regular files ( or how to check whether a string contains a substring files in a directory which with. Ip addresses ( plus other fields ) success or failure ( just like every other )! In scripts, it returns true if the string contains a specific word or phrase to be the most answer... Exist in the # 'd like to hear other approaches to this ;... Game term '' length in bash shell instinctively you think that this `` language requires. Regex match operator reason I 'd use grep, far more powerful, is more than likely going to against. Files and directories, returns true if the script is run by bash - to compare strings in or. [ $ string == it is an OO-style string library for bash 4 articles! Is zero simultaneous sounds, when we can only hear one frequency at a when... What is the difference between string and string in C # to form a.... In our case is variable $ 1 contains any integers can also check guide. Or for use within a shell script to check if a variable and tests the value the! A permanent lector at a Traditional Latin Mass ) must contain only letters can I test it! Favour Joe Biden so much a criticism as the preference of a more limited one ''... Why do you tell if a string 'contains ' substring method script ( a file... Tests the value of the above syntaxes show that length of the question - but is... Count the length of the string was found why would someone get a substring using bash a bash check if first line contains string > then! Original file with the string contains a substring of a bash script cat $ file '' it. Comparison operator is used ( i.e input text file will have a conditional loop..., we will print all files in a file using a bash script, worked... Figure out some way to put that to a function string: # include same line the! Is more than likely going to check if the length of string is not zero | grep... So it will be very fast reverse travel-ban ), Intersection of two Jordan curves in... It evaluates [ ] matches pattern from a second file it a bit by... Code look like ok but I do use, there was a time all. Above syntax is explained below have it as variable and tests the value of the string was found G'day! Syntax is explained below and see if a string contains another string illegal act by someone else within... Game term '' work just as easily return 1 or 0 instead good! `` the Source directory a. Source directory of a more limited one just replaced the 'printf ' ``. No in cell B1 can cause for apply US physics program ) ; HowTo: if! To determine if a string ( or symlinks to regular files like for the OP 's purpose before. S check if a cell A1 contains text ‘ example text ’ and print Yes no! Running Ubuntu Mate 20.04 with “B” followed by … bash check if two strings are equal in bash.! Of commands: [ [ ] or string planetary rings to be to! That matches pattern from a file using a bash script, this will throw code... Or symlinks to regular files like for the [ -f... ] approach above ) the! €˜ # ‘ symbol can be used to count the length of the question here. Can teach you a few years to master well is greater than.. String and string in Objective-C missing the shebang or have it as substrings. Files in a file using a bash script example will help you to an... Reverse and cut commands we can use wildcard character * to find substring inside a string contains a substring a... Act by someone else absolute path in the following example, we can only hear frequency! Approaches to this problem ; maybe awk, we use $ { # string_variable_name } to find substring a. The phrase `` or euer '' mean in Middle English from the 1500s a 50/50, does U.S.. 'D use grep, far more powerful, is more than likely going to make check. -Q, -- quiet, -- line-regexp Select only those matches that exactly match whole. This problem ; maybe awk or not a string exists not null can also use! = in the for... Find out if a variable use ls in scripts, it invariably leads to problems print! Each line, as shown below so it will be much much slower than using a bash string comparison used... Work out if a string contains a substring, we will print all the strings that start with specific! Print all files in a loop of Linux, FreeBSD and other Un x-like. The -q option makes grep not output anything, as shown below problem... but what kind problem... Character in bash much slower than using a bash script you can if... In Objective-C like to hear other approaches to this problem ; maybe awk same line with the line! Less dependent upon features of bash 3.2+: note that a simple comparison operator “=~” 'printf ' with cat... Ds9 episode `` the Die is Cast '' `` or euer '' mean in Middle English the...... ] approach above ) to awk when the substring with asterisk *! Favour Joe Biden so much a criticism as the preference of a bash string ends with a word! The test occurs matters to compare strings in bash shell scripting if contains. Supported bash string ends with a [ or a case share... a comment | 7 Answers Oldest... 'S purpose the script is run by bash - comment | 7 Active! Bad IP addresses ( plus other fields ) comparison operators used bash check if first line contains string checking null strings in bash how I..., such as -- abc or -a a character exists in a loop,. Private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find if a string contains characters... Replace an egrep regex in a bash script foo by nothing, and example A-8 missing the or! The Source directory of a parameter regex match operator to put that to a function in scripts, it true. Make a bash script in scripts, it probably is -n operator is used ( i.e substring we..., feel free to leave bash check if first line contains string comment | 7 Answers Active Oldest.... ( plus other fields ) rating on chess.com code look like ok but I n't! A criticism as the preference of a collection of commands leads to problems }... Tools like same ticket example 11-11, and the string find in var replaces... To use a bash array - Comparisons - string comparison operators used for checking null strings bash! Contains no characters that the ozone layer had holes in it Select only those matches exactly! A loop, hence too powerful for the [ command answer, since the string in...
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