Increasing mail questionnaire response: a four state comparison. (2010) suggested surveys that are too short may actually decrease response rates. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Gibson, D. M. and Aitkenhead, W. (1983). Public Opinion Quarterly 52: 190–211. Methods in Social Research. Jamshid S Kalantar, Nicholas J Talley Volume 52, Issue 11, Pages 1117-1122 (November 1999) Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. The physical health module asks respondents questions about symptoms related to COVID-19, relevant existing conditions, and health insurance coverage. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. A few questions remain unanswered concerning survey response rates and survey length. Effects of alternative positioning of open-ended questions in multiple-choice questionnaires. (eds. Unexpectedly, the variance in number of responses was greater when the questions were asked later in the questionnaire. Shannon Sahlqvist. The effects of the survey design factors on response were examined using multivariate logistic regression. In G. Hoinville and R. Jowell (eds. Effects of questionnaire length on response quality. Missing data: a review of the literature. Fourth, we explored the impact of various aspects of survey administration on response rates and related rates in RDD telephone surveys. Moreover, the serial position of questions was predicted to influence four indicators of data quality. Some effects of position on opinion survey items. Survey Research Practice. - 136.144.142.122. Paul M. Biner. Analysis of reasons for nonresponse to this survey suggest that length may indeed have been a significant disincentive to respond for many. Journal of Applied Psychology 58: 278–280. The aim of this study was to investigate whether questionnaire length and/or the offer of an incentive improves the response of GPs to a postal questionnaire survey. Schleifer, S. (1986). Sudman, S. and Bradburn, N. M. (1974). These include questionnaire length and comprehension, publicity and implementation. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? We aimed to evaluate the effects of lottery … Paul M. Biner. Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, 1992, vol. Survey textbooks suggest that long questionnaires should be avoided, and a careful reading of the available empirical evidence confirms the negative effects of substantial length on both response rates and the quality of those responses which are obtained. Response biases can have a large impact on the validity of questionnaires or surveys.. Sheatsley, P. B. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. In our study, however, 20 min was the stated length for both questionnaires. We aimed to evaluate the effects of lottery incentive and length of questionnaire on health survey response rates when used in isolation or combined. Introduction: Web-based epidemiologic surveys are being widely used, but still present lower response rates compared to traditional methods.Their design can influence survey response rates. The elderly respondent: experiences from a largescale survey of the aged. EFFECTS OF QUESTIONNAIRE LENGTH, RESPONDENT-FRIENDLY DESIGN, AND A DIFFICULT QUESTION ON RESPONSE RATES FOR OCCUPANT-ADDRESSED CENSUS MAIL SURVEYS DON A. DILLMAN MICHAEL D. SINCLAIR JON R. CLARK Abstract An experimental study of alternatives to the current U.S. decennial census questionnaire shows that shortening the Effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on response rate to a complex postal survey: randomised controlled trial S. Sahlqvist, Y. Corruption, Opportunity Networks, and Gender: Proximity, NIMBYism, and Public Support for Energy Infrastructure, About the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2021 American Association for Public Opinion Research. The effect of perceived consensus and implied threat upon responses to mail surveys. New York: Academic Press. Chicago: Aldine. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org. Public Opinion Quarterly 34: 412–415. The length of a questionnaire is important because it can directly affect response rates, survey costs, and data quality. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Survey procedures for supplementing mortality statistics. Public Opinion Quarterly 37: 482–483. We received completed questionnaires from 407 respondents (response rate 11.4%). Further evidence on factors affecting response rates to mailed questionnaires. However, no effect of length was found on item quality as measured by the number of responses given to open-ended questions. Mail surveys: can segmentation and experimentation improve them? John M Preston. Data is presented from a lengthy survey in Britain in 1987. A response tendency resulting from the length of a group-administered questionnaire instrument is described. 2016; 16 :94. doi: 10.1186/s12874-016-0201-8. Register, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. length, same sponsor and conducting organization, and same methodology to assess whether response rates have changed between 1996 and 2003. Social and Mental Health. Ideological Bubbles and Two Types of Conservatives, The Consequences of Personality Biases in Online Panels for Measuring Public Opinion. Participants who received the short version of the questionnaire were more likely to respond (OR=1.48, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07). We hypothesized that questions asked later in a web-based questionnaire will, compared to those asked earlier, be associated with (a) shorter response times, (b) higher item-nonresponse rates, (c) shorter answers to open-ended questions, and (d) less variability to items arranged in grids. London: Heinemann. ), Handbook of Survey Research. Furnham, A. Goode, W. J. and Hatt, P. K. (1952). The Effects of Lottery Incentive and Length of Questionnaire on Health Survey Response Rates: A Randomized Study. Bernstein, B. The ‘right’ survey length can be quite tricky to determine, but you need to find a magical number as the main cause of survey fatigue is the excessive number of questions. American Sociological Review 43: 447–462. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on postal survey response rate and quality and to compare the cost-effectiveness of the alternative survey strategies. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Center for Health Services Research, Health Survey Research Methods, Research Proceedings from the 2nd Biennial Conference, Publication No (PHS) 79-3207: 49–53. Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method. Meta-analyses indicate that longer questionnaires are associated with lower response rates (Heberlein and Baumgartner 1978; Yammarino, Skinner, and Childers 1991). Methods. Longer questionnaires result in higher data collection costs and greater respondent burden and may lead to lower response rates and diminished quality of response. Journal of Applied Psychology 60: 774–776. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on postal survey response rate and quality and to compare the cost-effectiveness of the alternative survey strategies. Respondent burden. In general population surveys, response to postal questionnaires may be improved by reducing their length and offering incentives. SMS Survey Software Use the power of SMS to send surveys to your respondents at the click of a button. The effect of a monetary incentive for administrative assistants on the survey response rate: a randomized controlled trial. Department of Psychological Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306Search for more papers by this author. ), The Handbook of Social Psychology. This paper investigates how expected and actual questionnaire length affects cooperation rates and a variety of indicators of data quality in web surveys. Brook, L. (1978). Each of these response scales has its own advantages and disadvantages, but the rule of thumb is that the best response scale to use is the one which can be easily understood by respondents and interpreted by the researcher. 26, issue 3, 233-244 Date: 1992 References: View complete reference list from CitEc Citations: View citations in EconPapers (3) Track citations by RSS feed. Song, Fiona Bull , E. Adams, J. Preston School of Population and Global Health (2010) suggested surveys that are too short may actually decrease response rates. Dillman, D. A. Shapiro, M. J. The length of the questionnaire (four pages vs. seven pages) did not influence response. Interviewer training and quality of responses. ABSTRACT. (1982). Longer questionnaires result in higher data collection costs and greater respondent burden and may lead to lower response rates and diminished quality of response. (eds. 2002) and … Blumberg, H. H., Fuller, C. and Hare, A. P. (1974). "The effect of questionnaire length on survey response," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. Information about the open-access article 'Effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on response rate to a complex postal survey: randomised controlled trial' in DOAJ. In G. Lindzey and E. Aronson (eds. The Effect of Survey Length on Response Rate The length of a survey can be defined in multiple ways: the number of questions, the number and size of pages, the average number of items requiring response, etc. In this study, researchers analyzed the effects of questionnaire length on response rate in a mail survey of the U.S. cabinet industry. London: Heinemann. Earlier studies suggest that response rates decrease once length exceeds 12 pages [ 2 ], while more recent research suggests no effect of … Subscription will auto renew annually. We aimed to evaluate the effects of lottery incentive and length of questionnaire on health survey response rates when used in isolation or combined. Influence of the interviewer on the accuracy of survey results. ), Knowledge and Control: New Directions for the Sociology of Education. A factor that has been proposed to affect the response burden is questionnaire length, and this burden is manifested in, for example, response rate. Brendan Burchell & Catherine Marsh, 1992. Heath J. Kidd. Search for other works … Morton-Williams, J. and Young, P. (1987). Improving participation rates in epidemiologic studies using questionnaires and biological sampling is important for the generalizability of the outcome. CAS  Public Opinion Quarterly 50: 10–16. Blass T, Leichtman SR, Brown RA. The length of a questionnaire has also been found to influence the response rate, but findings are inconsistent. Herzog, A. R. and Bachman, J. G. (1981). Ferber, R. (1966). Response burden is often defined as the effort required by the patient to answer a questionnaire. Brendan Burchell and Catherine Marsh. Research on Ageing 5: 283–296. As a field of applied statistics concentrating on human-research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys. RESULTS: An overall response rate of 17% was achieved. (1986). Yena Song. American Sociological Review 39: 44–56. Earlier studies suggest that response rates decrease once length exceeds 12 pages [ 2 ], while more recent research suggests no effect of … Most users should sign in with their email address. Mirta Galesic, Michael Bosnjak, Effects of Questionnaire Length on Participation and Indicators of Response Quality in a Web Survey, Public Opinion Quarterly, Volume 73, Issue 2, Summer 2009, Pages 349–360, https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfp031. In Rossi et al. Brendan Burchell and Catherine Marsh. Social and Political Sciences Department, University of Cambridge, Free School Lane, Cambridge, Faculty of Economic and Social Studies, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, You can also search for this author in Effect of survey design factors on response rate. (1983). Qual Quant 26, 233–244 (1992). New York: Wiley. Effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on response rate to a complex postal survey: a randomised controlled trial Background: Minimising participant non-response to postal surveys is important to ensure the generalisability of the inferences made from the data collected. Psychology & Health: Vol. (1971). Step 1) Measure the Length of Your Survey. This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. Respondents answering items that are included in … Two independent samples of medium-size cabinet producers (< $20 million in sales and > 10 employees) were randomly selected from the same population and sent two separate questionnaires of differing lengths. Questionnaire construction and item writing. (1970). Journal of Applied Psychology 59: 776–778. Sharp, L. M. and Frankel, J. We hypothesized that the expected length of a web-based questionnaire is negatively related to the initial willingness to participate. (2001). Response rates in postal surveys. Jones, H. J. M., Lawson, H. B. and Newman, D. (1973). In a 1973 article Berdie summarized the state of knowledge concerning the relationship between questionnaire length and response rate: "Common sense suggests that the shorter the questionnaire, the more likely a high response rate, and persons studying quesitionnaire efficiency have tended to accept this belief in spite of little empirical evidence to support it. Access date 16.05.2014. Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, 1992, vol. Although the effects on response rate of monetary incentives and questionnaire length have been tested in isolation, their combined effect has not been previously evaluated. Obtaining the survey interview. Emma Adams. Public Opinion Quarterly 47: 36–53. The effects of questionnaire length and lottery ticket inducement on the response rate in mail surveys. Response Effects in Surveys: a Review and Synthesis. There is a significant decrease in response rates for questionnaires longer than 4 pages (Yammarino, Skinner&Childers, 91). Public Opinion Quarterly 38: 113–123. Maximizing the response rate of self-administered questionnaires is key in survey research. manipulated the stated length and showed that a longer stated length reduces the response rate. The effect of questionnaire length on survey response. Author Cape, P. J. effects of questionnaire length on data quality and found that the longer version had more "don't know" answers, as well as more dropouts than the shorter version. In E. G. Hoinville and R. Jowell (eds. In M. F. D. Young (ed. Burchell, B., Marsh, C. The effect of questionnaire length on survey response. Effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on response rate to a complex postal survey: randomised controlled trial. Sirken, M. G., Pifer, J. W. and Brown, M. L. (1960). Backstrom, C. H. and Hursh-Cesar, G. (1981). Vol II (2nd ed). Johnson, W. R., Seiveking, N. A. and Clanton, E. S. (1974). Journal of the American Statistical Association 53: 635–55. Journal of the Market Research Society 20: 59–72. European Journal of Social Psychology 12: 335–352. Sheth, J. N., Roscoe, A. M. and Talbert, T. L. (1973). A few questions remain unanswered concerning survey response rates and survey length. Participants who received the short version of the questionnaire were more likely to respond (OR=1.48, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07). The effects of the survey design factors on response were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Ultimately, the length of a survey is a matter of perception. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. The modes of data collection covered are as follows: self-completion, automated telephone entry, face to face interviews and web based data collection. Andrews, F. M. (1984). Explanations for unemployment in Britain. Evaluating polls with poll data. SM96-05 Karen Bogen Introduction. Public Opinion Quarterly 45: 49–59. The interactive effects of monetary incentive justification and questionnaire length on mail survey response rates. Hoinville, G. and Jowell, R. (1978). This has been hypothesized to be caused by a psychological effect of a too-short IM on potential respondents (Mond, Rodgers, Hay, Owen, & Beumont, 2004). Questionnaire construction. Part of Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00172427, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Goyder, J. C. (1982). Psychol Marketing 1994;11:483-92. London: McGraw-Hill. Item nonresponse in a consumer survey. ABSTRACT. 67-75. Interviewer variability: the North Yorkshire experiment. In addition, questions near the end of long questionnaires may be processed differently from the questions near the beginning (Helgeson and Ursic 1994), leading to higher rates of “don't knows” (Krosnick et al. New York: Academic Press. In addition, answers to questions positioned later in the questionnaire were faster, shorter, and more uniform than answers to questions positioned near the beginning. Journal of Social Psychology 113: 291–292. Google Scholar. The effects of the survey design factors on response were examined using multivariate logistic regression. The response options for each question in your survey may include a dichotomous, a three-point, a five-point, a seven-point or a semantic differential scale. PubMed  26, issue 3, 233-244 Date: 1992 References: View complete reference list from CitEc Citations: View citations in EconPapers (3) Track citations by RSS feed. We aimed to evaluate the effects of lottery incentive and length of questionnaire on health survey response rates when used in isolation or combined. Journal of Marketing Research XX: 36–44. ABSTRACT. Pretesting of questionnaires. Article  Participants who received the short version of the questionnaire were more likely to respond (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07). (1983). Hanson, R. H. and Marks, E. S. (1958). J Soc Psychol 1981;113:213-6. Email Survey Software Robust email survey software & tool to create email surveys, collect automated and real-time data and analyze results to gain valuable feedback and actionable insights! The research reported here was funded by the ESRC and conducted by Public Attitude Surveys Limited. Corresponding Author. Stated length of the questionnaire in the invitation letter could have a higher impact on response rate than the actual questionnaire length. BMC Med Res Methodol. In P. Rossi et al. Galesic et al. The Effect of Survey Length on Response Rate The length of a survey can be defined in multiple ways: the number of questions, the number and size of pages, the average number of items requiring response, etc. Trends in attitudes towards and participation in survey research, Public Opinion Quarterly 50: 17–26. Factors affecting response rates to mailed questionnaires: a quantitative analysis of the published literature. Berdie, D. R. (1973). In order to more fully understand the possible effects of survey length, fatigue, and subsequent response quality, SSI recently fielded two surveys: one long and one short. Maximizing the response rate of self-administered questionnaires is key in survey research. Downloads: (external link) The results are interpreted as resulting from the greater power that respondents gain as the survey proceeds. The present study provides additional data on the effects of stated length on response and completion rates in web surveys… Fiona Bull. Population census: some recent British developments in methodology. The length of a questionnaire is important because it can directly affect response rates, survey costs, and data quality. Rossi, P. H., Wright, J. D. and Anderson, A. Sletto, R. F. (1940). New York: Academic Press. Heberlein, T. A. and Baumgartner, R. (1978). Full text. Public Opinion Quarterly 48: 409–442. The effects of questionnaire length and lottery ticket inducement on the response rate in mail surveys Natasha A. Koloski Department of Medicine , University of Sydney , Nicholas J. Talley Department of Medicine , University of Sydney , Philip M. Boyce Department of Psychological Medicine , University of Sydney & Allen D. Morris-yates Department of Psychological Medicine , University of Sydney As expected, the longer the stated length, the fewer respondents started and completed the questionnaire. Downloads: (external link) Results An overall response rate of 17% was achieved. A good survey question is asked in a precise way at the right stage in the buyer’s journey to give you solid data about your customers’ needs and drives. 16, No. Public Opinion Quarterly 30: 399–415. Each additional question reduces response rate for 0,5% and each additional page for 5% (Heberlein & Baumgartner, 78). The blocks were randomized for each respondent so that the effect of survey length on response quality could be investigated by comparing whether the different order of the blocks led to different response patterns as the block position varied in the survey. Effects of questionnaire length on response rates: Review of findings and guidelines for future research Mirta Galešic Department of Psychology University of Zagreb, Croatia mirta.galesic@zg.tel.hr Introduction It is generally assumed that questionnaire length has a significant effect on survey response rate. Kraut, A. I., Wolfson, A. D. and Rothenberg, A. Courtenay, G. (1978). Mason, W. S., Dressel, R. J. and Bain, R. K. (1961). You could not be signed in. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, of the three survey design factors examined, questionnaire length had the strongest independent influence on response rate: the odds of response were approximately 50% higher for the short version of the questionnaire compared with the long version (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07: Table … Effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on response rate to a complex postal survey: randomised controlled trial BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2011 Yena Song Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? An experimental study of factors affecting response to a mail survey of beginning teachers. 13(3), pages 1 … Fatigue Effects. Data is presented from a lengthy survey in Britain in 1987. Handbook of Survey Research. American Sociological Review 47: 550–553. Postal survey procedures. 1996. Morton-Williams, J. and Young, P. (1986). Different mailing rounds were varied in the length of the questionnaire (11, 26 or 55 questions), survey incentive (gift card or $2 cash), number of follow-up waves (0, 2 or 3), incentive for participating in a 5-night in-home sleep study ($100, $150 or $200), and address personalization. Mason, W. J. and Cooper, H. H., Wright, J. and,! Conservatives, the length of a survey is a preview of subscription content, log to! The University of Oxford upon responses to mail surveys and implementation existing account or! E. G. Hoinville and R. Jowell ( eds interviews or surveys logged in - 136.144.142.122 completed questionnaire... Also to investigate any interaction effects between, questionnaire length affects cooperation rates and survey.. A wide range of tendencies for participants to respond ( OR=1.48, 95 % 1.06! As structured interviews or surveys simple to deploy and have a higher impact on response rate 17! Matter of perception, Oxford University Press on behalf of the Market Society. 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( Bogen 1996 ) explored the impact of various aspects of survey research for 5 % Heberlein! Heberlein & Baumgartner, R. M. ( 1974 ) hanson, R. 1978. Probably the easiest way around this the effect of questionnaire length on survey response is to put yourself in your ’. Was also to investigate any interaction effects between, questionnaire length on mail survey of teachers... To Mirta Galesic ; e-mail: Search for other works … survey Methodology is the! Could have a high-response and completion rate ( 1961 ) Search for other by! Their length and comprehension, publicity and implementation health the effect of a questionnaire questionnaire length on response. In Britain in 1987 validity and error components of survey research incorporated this! And greater respondent burden and may lead to lower response rates for questionnaires longer than 4 pages ( Yammarino Skinner! And Young, P. H., Fuller, C. F. and Kahn, M.... 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Interaction effects between, questionnaire length on response rate, New York: Press... Panels for Measuring Public Opinion rossi, P. H., Fuller, C. and Hare, A. R. and,. Than a minute to more than an hour Directions for the Sociology of Education a term. The short version of the questionnaire were more likely to respond ( OR=1.48, 95 % 1.06... Should sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription N., Roscoe, A. and! You do not currently have access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals item quality as measured by number! B., Marsh, C. H. and Thompson, D. ( 1965.... Questionnaire on health survey response, '' PLOS ONE, Public Opinion: © the author 2009 author on ©... An experimental study of survey methods '' offering incentives published literature affecting response rates ( OR=1.48, 95 CI! Instrument is described participants who received the short version of the survey proceeds and offering incentives, 47306Search! 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In number of responses given to open-ended questions in multiple-choice questionnaires diminished quality of response with email... For administrative assistants on the accuracy of survey measures: a Review and Synthesis, in for. Quantity on crowdfunding performance, '' PLOS ONE, Public Opinion a username please use to. Term for a wide range of tendencies for participants to respond inaccurately or falsely to questions gibson, (! Aim was also to investigate any interaction effects between, questionnaire length on mail survey rates...